A Travellerspoint blog

Kathmandu - Temples of all religions


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October 1st Kathmandu, Nepal

Continuing our flight from Tibet, we passed over the Himalayas, which border Tibet/Nepal/Bhutan/Sikkim India.
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Closer and closer to Everest (on view Shartse, Lhotse Shar, Lhotse, Everest, Nuptse, Ama Dablam and Pumo Ri)
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Leaving the Plateau and entering Kathmandu Valley (after circling 6 times!)

Kumbhakarna is the 32nd highest mountain in the world at 7,710m. It is an important western outlier of Kangchenjunga, and is a large and steep peak in its own right. The official name is Kumbhakarna, but Jannu is better known. It is also called Phoktanglungma, literally "mountain with shoulders” (phoktang= shoulder, lungma= mountain), in the Limbu language, and is sacred in the Kirant religion. Kumbhakarna is the highest peak of the Kumbhakarna Section of Kangchenjunga Himal, which straddles the border between Nepal and Sikkim, although this mountain lies entirely within Nepal. A long ridge connects it with Kangchenjunga to the east. It is one of the hardest peaks in terms of technical difficulty because of its complex structure, vertical relief, and particularly steep climb near the summit. The north face has the most technical (and controversial) climbing at altitudes over 7000m. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountains_of_Bhutan
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We were lucky to pass over the most sacred peak and lake in Nepal (if not in Hinduism), Gosaikunda Mt. and lake.
Gosaikunda Lake (गोसाइँकुण्ड) is an alpine freshwater oligotrophic lake in Nepal's Langtang National Park, at an altitude of 4,380 m in Rasuwa District with a surface of 13.8 ha. Together with associated lakes, the Gosaikunda Lake complex is 1,030 ha. The lake melts and sips down to form the Trishuli River and remains frozen for 6 months in winter. There are 108 medium to small lakes in this area. Mt Lauribina La, 4,610 m is on its outskirts. Gosaikunda area is an religious site. Hindu mythology attributes it as the abode of the Hindu deities Shiva and Gauri. Hindu scriptures refer to Samudra manthan, which is directly related to the origin of Gosaikunda. Its waters are considered holy and of particular significance during the Gangadashahara and Janai Purnima festivals when thousands of pilgrims from Nepal and India pay a visit. Gosaikunda is believed to have been created by Lord Shiva when he thrust his Trisuli (holy trident) into a mountain to extract water so that he could cool his this stinging throat after he had swallowed poison (an important Hindu tale, and the reason he is generally depicted with a blue throat).
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Dorje Lhakpa is a mountain in the Langtang Himal area in Nepal. Visible from Kathmandu valley, it has a pyramid-shaped figure and is an ideal target for photographers and mountainteers. Considered as an intermediate trek, with the easiest route from the west ridge.
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On landing we knew the drill (at last), and were pretty quick to get sorted and out (but then had to wait for everyone else). KK greeted us, as customary in the Himalayan area, with a kata scarf. This one was particularly interesting as it wasn’t a plain one, but had the Ashtamangala printed on it. The Ashtamangala are the sacred Eight Auspicious Signs of a number of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism. The symbols or "symbolic attributes" are yidam and teaching tools. These attributes point to qualities of enlightenment. Many cultural variations of the Ashtamangala exist. Groupings of eight auspicious symbols were originally used in India at ceremonies such as a coronation of a king. An early grouping of symbols included: throne, swastika, handprint, hooked knot, vase of jewels, water libation flask, pair of fish, lidded bowl. In Buddhism, these eight symbols of good fortune represent the offerings made by the gods to Shakyamuni Buddha immediately after he gained enlightenment. af32bfc0-cc2f-11eb-9cc2-095120405193.png
Ashtamangala above: first row (left to right): parasol, pair of golden fish, conch; second row: treasure vase, lotus; Last row: infinite knot, victory banner and dharma wheel.

KK outlined the day’s plans; Pashupatinath, lunch, Boudnath and an (unexpected, bt very welcome) show. It turned out that Achut had realised how interested we were in seeing the local songs and dances, and decided to treat us to an evening show and meal (on him- no money needed, which was really kind).
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Pashupatinath (पशुपतिनाथ मन्दिर) is Nepal’s most famous and sacred Hindu temple complex located on the banks of Bagmati River, 5 km north-east of Kathmandu and surrounded with bustling stalls selling marigolds, prasad (offerings), incense, rudraksha beads, conch shells, pictures of Hindu deities, tika powder in rainbow colours, glass lingams, models of Mt Meru, etc. Some shrines in the sprawling complex were damaged in the 2015 quake, but the main mandir is fine. Pashupatinath might not look sacred as it is just 300m from the runway of Tribhuvan Airport, overlooking a polluted stretch of the Bagmati. Elsewhere in Nepal, Shiva is worshipped in his wrathful destructive form of Bhairab, but at Pashupatinath he is celebrated as Pashupati, Lord of Beasts. Sadhus and devotees of Shiva flock here and many Nepalis are cremated on the river bank. Kings would come here for blessing from Pashupati before a journey or diplomatic meeting. Nepal’s Dalit community were only allowed access in 2001. Non-Hindus can’t enter the main temple, but the surrounding complex of Shaivite shrines, lingams, ghats (stone steps) is both fascinating and photogenic (but be respectful at funeral ghats).
Pashupatinath has 518 temples and monuments. The main pagoda style temple is in the fortified courtyard within the complex guarded by the police and army. In front of the west door is a huge Nandi bull. Many temples and shrines are of both Vaishnav (adherents of Vishnu) and Shaiva (adherents of Shiva) tradition.The entry fee for foreigners is surprisingly high. The following sights are all covered by the Pashupatinath entry ticket.
Pashupatinath Temple serves as the seat of Nepal's national deity, Lord Pashupatinath. This temple complex was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in 1979 as one of the seven monument groups in Kathmandu Valley. One of the major Festivals of the temple is Maha Shivaratri on which day over 1 million devotees visit. The temple is one of the 275 Tamil Paadal Petra Sthalams (Holy Abodes of Shiva). The temple was erected anew in the 5th century by Lichchavi King Prachanda Dev after the previous building was consumed by termites. Over time, many more temples have been erected around this two-storied temple, including the Vaishnava temple complex with a Rama temple from the 14th century and the Guhyeshwari Temple mentioned in an 11th-century manuscript. Pashupatinath is the oldest Hindu temple in Kathmandu. It is not known for certain when it was built, but according to Nepal Mahatmaya and Himvatkhanda, the deity here gained great fame as Pashupati, the Lord of all Pashus (living and non-living beings). Worship at Pashupatinath Temple (area) dates back to 400 BC. The richly ornamented pagoda houses the sacred linga or holy symbol of Lord Shiva. There are many legends describing as to how the temple of Lord Aalok Pashupatinath came to existence here.
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We entered from the non-Hindu entrance (marked by a red arrow as not on this map) and walked down towards the river, arriving at the river bank opposite to the cremation platforms. Behind them was the large Pancha Deval/ Rajrajeswori. Walking along the river bank towards the main bridge we saw loads of monkeys, who you have to keep an eye out for because they will steal from your pockets! As we neared the bridge we walked up a few stone steps to the small temple of Ram Mandir, then back down to the cremation ghats. We then crossed the bridge to access the first courtyard (the only one we were allowed to) to see the sculpture of Shankar, Yamuna and Mangaleshwori (8), Akash Bhairab (1) and the tiny Vatsala Temple (9). The back of this small courtyard held a row of sculptures (5), Pancha Ganesh (4) and Ananta Narayan (2).
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Temples and Shrines in the inner courtyard Temples and Shrines in the outer complex
! Vasuki Nath Temple • Unmatta Bhairav Temple ! Ram mandir
! Surya narayan Temple • Kirti mukh bhairav shrine ! Virat swaroop temple
! Budanil kantha shrine • Hanuman shrine ! 12 jyotirlingha and Pandra Shivalaya
! 184 shiva linga shrine ! Guhyeshwari Temple
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Legend says that Shiva and Parvati were travelling and were so impressed by the beautiful forest by the Bagmati River, they took the form of an antelope (or deer) and played in the forest on the river's east bank (which is why there is a large wooded area at the back of the temple). The gods thought he was refusing his responsibilities and caught up with them. When they refused to go, a god grabbed Shiva by one of his horns, forced him to return to divine form. The broken horn was worshipped as a siva linga but over time it was buried and lost. Centuries later a herdsman found his cow covering the earth with milk. Digging deep, he discovered the divine linga of Pashupatinath. Ultimately Shiva announced that, since he had lived as a deer, he would now be known as Pashupatinath, Lord of all animals.
A variation says that the wish-fulfilling cow Kamadhenu took shelter in a cave on the Chandravan mountain. Everyday Kamadhenu went down to the place the lingam was buried into the soil and poured her milk on top of the soil. After a few thousand years people saw her pouring milk on that same spot every day, and started to wonder why. So they removed the soil and found the beautiful shining lingam and started worshipping it. It is said that whoever came here and beheld the lingam would not be reborn as an animal.
! According to Gopalraj Aalok Vamsavali, the oldest chronicle in Nepal, the temple was built by Prachanda Deva, a Lichchhavi King, who according to the stone inscription erected by Jayadeva II in the courtyard of Pashupatinath in 753 AD, was the ruler 39 generations before Manadeva (464-505 AD)
! Another chronicle states that the original Pashupatinath Temple had a Linga shaped Devalaya before Supuspa Deva constructed a 5-storey temple of Pashupatinath here. It was reconstructed by King Shivadeva (1099-1126 AD) and later King Ananta Malla added a roof.
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Thousands of pilgrims from all over the world come to pay homage to this temple, that is also known as 'The Temple of Living Beings'. The main temple is in the Nepalese pagoda style; a cubic construction with beautifully carved wooden rafters on which they rest (tundal). The roofs are of copper with gold covering. The temple resides on a square base platform with a height of 23m 7 cm from base to pinnacle. It has four main doors, all covered with silver. This temple has a gold pinnacle (Gajur). Inside are two Garbhagrihas (sanctum), outer and inner. The inner garbhagriha or sanctum sanctorum is where the idol is placed and outer sanctum is an open corridor-like space.
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The main idol is a stone Mukhalinga (linga with a face) with a silver yoni (stylised vagina) base bound with the silver serpent. (2 yoni, a round and square one are shown below). The lingam is one metre high and has faced in four directions. These faces represent various aspects of Shiva; Sadyojata (Barun), Vamadeva (Ardhanareshwara), Tatpurusha, Aghora & Ishana (on top). Facing West, North, East, South and Zenith respectively representing five primary elements; earth, water, air, light, ether. Each face has tiny protruding hands holding rudraksha mala (prayer beads=time) on right hand and a kamandalu (water pot=life) on the other. In Nepal this Pashupati Shiva lingam is always dressed in its golden vastram except during abhisheka (prayers), so pouring milk and Ganga Jal is only possible through the main priests.
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right- Western entrance of main temple courtyard
A unique feature of this temple is that only 4 priests can touch the idol. Daily rituals of Pashupatinath are carried out by two sets of priests; one by the Bhatt priests (performs the daily ritual and can touch the lingam) and one by Bhandari (caretaker priests not qualified to perform pooja rituals or to touch the deity). Bhat(ta) are highly educated Vedic Dravida Brahmin Scholars from Karnataka.
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Ram Temple
Unlike other Hindu temples, priesthood of Pashupatinath is not hereditary. The Bhandaris (Rajbhandari) are the descendants of helper priests brought by early Bhatts and allowed to settle in Kathmandu valley and later assimilated in existing Newar caste of Rajbhandari, a high-caste Chathariya/Kshatriya clan. They can have little or no Vedic knowledge but qualify as assistant priests if they come from the same family lineage and undergo basic criteria like caste, gotra, lineage purity, educational qualification, etc. They work in a set of three and change in every full moon day. There are a total of 108 Bhandaris. The temple courtyard has 4 entrances in the cardinal directions. The western entrance is the main entrance to the temple courtyard and the remaining three entrances are open only during festivals. Practising Nepali Hindus and Buddhists are only allowed into Temple courtyard. Practising Hindus of Western descent and all non-Hindus are not allowed into the temple complex, except Indian Sikhs and Jains. Everyone else has to pay 1000 Nepali rupees (about £7) to visit the hundreds of small temples in the external premises of the temple complex. The inner temple courtyard is open 4am- 7pm for prayers, but the Inner Pashupatinath Temple (for the Lingam of Lord Pashupatinath) is open 5am-midday and 5pm-7pm. Unlike other Saiva temples, devotees are not allowed to enter the innermost Garbhagriha premises but are allowed to watch from the exterior premises of the outer Garbhagriha. The inner sanctum where the Shiva Linga is placed, has four entrances: east, west, north, south. Normally devotees will have the Shiva Linga-darshan through western door entrance only. From 9:30 to 1:30 devotees can worship from all the doors. All four doors are opened during Abhisheka i.e. 9-11am, when all four sides of the Shiva Linga-darshan can be seen.
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Vasala Temple and courtyard area
In January 2009, after the forced resignation of the chief priest of Pashupatinath temple, the CPN Maoist government of Nepal "hand picked" Nepalese priests of Khas-Gorkhali ethnicity to lead the temple, bypassing the temple's long-standing requirements. This was contested by the Bhandaris of the temple, stating that they were not against Nepalese priests but against the appointment without proper procedure. After a challenge in civil court, the appointment was overruled by Supreme Court of Nepal, but the government refused to back down.
This led to public outrage and protests. The paramilitary group of the CPN attacked the protesters, leading to over a dozen injuries. After protest by Hindus both in and outside Nepal, the government was forced to reverse its decision and reinstate Bhatta priests.
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Highlights:
! The Pashupatinath Ghats for a look at ritual cremations
! The Arya Ghat is where the members of the royal family are cremated
! A glimpse at the Pashupatinath temple from the outside looking in
! Visiting the votive shrines, the Pandra Shivalaya and the Ram Temple across the river along the terraces
! Converse with one of mysterious Sadhus that often congregate here
! Going past Pandra Shivalaya is a quiet forested area you can walk
This part of the main Pashupatinath complex is open to all who buy an entrance ticket.
1. The Ghats - areas around the Bagmati river where cremations occur. Each one has a separate meaning.
2. Vatasala Temple - with a shrine to Bhairab.
3. Ananta Narayan - rare terra-cotta statue
4. Gorakhnath Temple Complex - massive area filled with shrines
5. Guhyeshwari Temple - off-limits to non-Hindus it is where Sati's Yoni is.
6. Ram temple - large temple where many Sadhus gather Sati's Gate - a gate for Shiva’s wife
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We then crossed back and turned left, up some steps to see the 11 chaityas and Linga with Shiva face. When we looked through the end one, all 11 lined up like a long mirror effect. There was a story that a king took a young wife and made love to her, but she was too young and died in childbirth. He was so sad he’d taken her life he erected 11 chaittyas (mini-stupa) to her. Sounded a bit spurious to me, but may have a kernel of reality somewhere. Across on the opposite bank we could see the Arya ghat or Royal Cremation platform (6), left erected but empty, Mukti Mandeep (3) and the sculpture of Birupakchya (7). Back at the bridge once more we took the steep steps into the forest. Stopping half way gave us a magnificent view of the forbidden complex, the main temple roof, the Mahadev linga and the Huge Golden Trident. We continued through the forest to Gorakhnath and the tranquil Gujeswori temple before crossing another bridge to collect our car.
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Details from Vasala temple
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Hindus just like a simple rite to incinerate the dead and scatter them into a sacred river. Nepalese Hindus believe that cremation into the Holy River Ganges (to which the Bagwati leads) is the last sacrament in one’s lifetime. Six stone crematory platforms on the holy Bagmati banks outside of Pashupatinath Temple are crematorium where Nepali Hindus make death rituals. The upstream two serve for royal family and nobility, the rest are used by civilians. The closer to Pashupatinath Temple on both sides of the bridge, the more noble the dead is. Arya Ghat on Bagmati River is the biggest crematoria in Nepal. The mourners are happy for photos and close visits, as long as visitors should behave decorously. In Nepal, orange flowers, red tika (powder) and golden silks are symbols of death. According to the tradition, the family firstly washes away the dust on face with holy water from Bagmati River and tidy children walk three times around the dead. Then family members wrap up the body with a white or yellow cloth, sprinkle flower, rice and auspicious things on the body. If you are of high social status, an eminent Hindu monk will perform a Buddhist ceremony. Once finished the ritual, the dead body will be placed on the platform above wood for the cremation which starts from mouth (the source of good and evil). The ashes will be pushed into the Bagmati River which flows into the Ganges River in India after three hours. Adjacent red low houses offers accommodation for families who just make the farewell with the dead for one week to pray for the beloved.
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Gorakhnath and Gujeswori temple
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Having collected our car we drove through very crowded streets to be dropped off at the entrance to Boudhnath Stupa. Bodhnath (Boudha) is Asia’s largest stupa, where thousands gather daily to make their ritual kora (circumnavigation) of the dome, under the watchful eyes of Buddha from the gilded central tower. We walked up to the base of the stupa and went clockwise (of course) around, until we reached the Tibetan Buddhist
monastery. As we walked we span the prayer wheels. This stupa is an important point for Tibetan refugee monks, many of whom were wandering around in maroon robes and shaved heads. The lanes around were filled with workshops making butter lamps, ceremonial horns, tsampa (roasted barley flour), Tibetan drums, monks’ hats, etc. This was an historic staging post on the trade route between Lhasa and Kathmandu, Tibetan traders would traditionally pray for safe journey before driving their yaks to the Himalaya passes. Originally a Tamang settlement, today most people in the village Boudha (boe-da) are Tibetan refugees from the 1959 Chinese invasion. The Stupa attracts Sherpas too, descendants of eastern Tibetans who migrated to the Everest region of Nepal in the 16th c.
The Tibetan monastery, Jamchen Lhakhang is a Sakya sect monastery and houses a huge 3-storey statue of Jampa Maitreya (Future Buddha). We also noted the unusual murals showing the former King Tribhuvan and his queen.
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1. Legend according to Newar Buddhists- The palace of King Bikramaditya/Vikramaditya (a Licchavi King) instructed that a Dhunge Dhara (stone basin and tap) be built in the southern part of his palace courtyard. But there was no sign of water, so the king consulted astrologers who suggested that a human sacrifice of a man with Battis-Lakshanas (32 perfections). Only the king himself and his two sons were suitable candidates. So, the king decided to sacrifice himself and ordered one of his sons to sacrifice him so that water would flow at the Dhunge Dhara. According to local mythology, during the sacrifice, the head flew off! The sad prince flew a hen from the top of Bajrayogini and decided to construct a Stupa where it landed, which is now Boudhanath Stupa. Later Nepal’s government renamed the place Boudhanath to reflect them as a Hindu Nation.
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Interior Jampa Lhakhang; Bouddhnath Stupa; shrine to a place nearby Sankhu Bajrayogini Temple.
2. Legend according to Tibetan Buddhists- Kāśyapa Buddha lived a long time before Śākyamuni Buḍḍha. After Kāśyapa Buddha's demise, an old woman Ma-jha-zi-ma who owned hens, interred this great sage's remains and built a great mound. Before starting, she petitioned the King to grant a land size of a piece of skin where she could build a tower. The king wondered how she going to build it on such small piece of land, and gave her both land and permission. She then carefully cut the skin and made skin-rope (lung) and encircled the area, which become the size of present area of Bouddhanath.
3. The Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī says Boudhanath was founded by the Nepalese Licchavi king Śivadeva (c.590- 604 AD); though other Nepalese chronicles date it to the reign of King Mānadeva (464-505 AD). Tibetan sources claim a mound on the site was excavated in the late 15th/ early 16th century and the bones of King Aṃshuvarmā (605-621) were discovered there. The earliest historical references to the Khaasti Chaitya (Bouddhnath stupa) are found in the Chronicles of the Newars. Khaasti is mentioned as one of the four stupas built by the Licchavi king Vrisadeva (cAD 400) or Vikramjit. Newars legend of the stupa’s origin attributes it to king Dharmadeva’s son, Manadeva (464-505 AD) as atonement for his parricide. Another great Licchhavi king Shivadeva (AD 590-604) is associated with Boudha by an inscription; he may have restored it. Conversely, the Tibetan emperor Trisong Detsen (r. 755-97) is also traditionally associated with the construction. While Buddhism was spreading in Tibet, and Tibet-Nepal relations were strong, a widowed Tibetan woman travelled from Lhasa to visit Khaasti. Her name was Jyajhima, and she reared hens.
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We were hot, thirsty and hungry now, so KK took us to a rooftop restaurant, the Himalayan Java. We sat in the shade and enjoyed a cold beer and veggie burgers, whilst admiring the stupa. When we’d finished we walked up onto the stupa’s dome and completely around it before coming back down to catch our minivan back to the hotel. After a nice relax we were collected to drive up into the cooler hills for our meal and show. The palace had been reconstructed by Achut’s wacky friend, and was excellent. The dancing was beautiful and the music eccentric. The main sarangi player, who constructed his own sarangi out of a single piece of wood (quite a handicraft), was a great singer and player, but also made farmyard noises, so we played him at his own game with our own- he thought it was hilarious. He even persuaded Steve to buy his sarangi, the one that he’d been playing. Later we were told it was an excellent price. The sarangi is a folk Nepalese bowed string instrument. Traditionally in Nepal, the Sarangi was only played by people of Gandarva or Gaine caste, who sing narrative tales and folk song. However, nowadays it is widely used and played by many. It is also used widely in Nepali music. Some of the best known dances are shown below (those in blue are ones we saw performed either here, in Pokhara, or in Lhasa.
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Dances of Nepal http://www.weallnepali.com/art-and-culture/nepalidances
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1. Classical Dance
- Kumari Dance- an ancient dance dedicated to living Goddess “Kumari"
- Manjushree Dance- performed and dedicated to Manjushree.
- Panache Buddha Dance- Panache Buddha means 5 Buddha, so 5 dancers, each with his own posture, colour and direction
- Bajrayogini Dance- an ancient dance to goddess Bajrayogini. According to tantric Buddhism, there are 4 Yoginis (tantric goddesses) in Kathmandu Valley. This dance is performed to Bajarayogini in Shakhu, with symbolic movements of hands and facial expressions. Performed in Buddhist temples.
- Arya Tara Dance- most popular Classical dance of ancient Nepal, devoted to Arya Tara aka "Holy Mother” in ancient mythology. Performed in religious festivals wearing full ceremonial dress.
2. Nepalese Folk Dance There are numerous types of folk dances all across Nepal.
- Tamang Selo- is usually performed by the Tamangs who beat a damphu (drum) in a solo or group. Aka damphu-natch or in Tamang language tam-syaba.
- Juhari or Dohori- a gambling or duel dance performed in group during festivals.
- Chutki - performed by Chhetris, Bahnus, Gurungs, Magars to the rhythmic beats of Khaijadi or madal, full of speed and movement
- Dhan Nach-the dance of Limbus. Young boys and girls hold each other and swing their feet in the beat of Chyabrung.
- Karua- performed by the Magars and Tamangs in groups.
- Balan- performed by the Chhetris and Bahuns during religious ceremonies. The importance part is the performance of "Lilas" (acts) of different gods and goddess.
- Maruni -the most loved dance. A male dancer is disguised as a woman in a long dress. Other members sing and play. A dhatuware (like a jester) accompanies
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- Bethi- Bethi dance involves panche baja. This dance is performed during resettling time.
- Sorathi- like maruni. It is also known as madalay-nach (dance with a traditional drum)
- Sakela Sili- performed by Rais during festival of sakela, sometimes over many days.
- Lakhe- very important Newari autumn dance performed by monsters wearing masks.
- Matrikastam- a form of mask dance performed by Newars during dashain festival.
- Jungwa- a ceremonial dance performed by Tamang priest.
- Mhendomaya- a Tamang dance for separate rows of men and women
- Sangini- sophisticated dance by Chhetris and Bahramin women during the festival of teej. Women perform this dance holding plates of Kansha (bronze) or diyo (ceremonial lamp) or carrying Kalash (vessel) on the head. It is a slow dance and depends entirely on movement of hand and feet.
- Jhyaware- This is one of the most popular and widely performed dances in Nepal.
- Deura- performed by Damai community. Naumati baja (a traditional band of 9 instruments).
- Khukuri Nach- performed by the Gorkha soldiers holding khukuri in their hands to represent power and pride.
- Jhyaure Dance- popular in Gandaki zone, performed by the young boys and girls to express the joy of meeting theirs lovers.
- Tappa Dance- popular in Dang (Rapti Zone). The dance starts slow and speeds up. This dance is based on beating of the Madal drum.
- Sorathi Dance- popular dance performed by the Gurungs. The main dancer, (always a male) represented Jaisinge Raja (a King) dances in turn with 16 female dancers (16 queens). Two male dancers beat their drums.
- Yak and Yeti dance- performed in the high mountain areas as homage to the Yak, used as transportation and carry loads in high altitudes. Also there is a belief that yeti is seen in the mountains of Nepal.
- Newari (Dhime)- autumn dance of Newari, from 13thC Malla period.
- Sherpa Dance- about feasting, singing, dancing, meeting friends/ family.
- Bhojpuri- popular in Terai region, a romantic dance of spring and autumn.
- Dhimal- Dhimals live in eastern Terai.Dhimal dance is always performed in group. They wear traditional costumes of fishing during their dance.
- Ghatu- Gandaki Zone. aka 'Bara Mase Ghatu' only by the unmarried girls.
- Khali- With the beat of the madal young people sing and dance gathering in the chautari. There is playful flirting. Young men and women can win wives and men in contests if they can beat their challenger.
- Jhijhiya Dance- performed by young women during Dashami. Women carry lanterns with holes and diyos inside it. This allows the atmosphere to lighten up. Women dance with these lanterns on their heads in a pattern where the holes in the lantern can be counted. This dance is influenced by Tantric belief and performed mainly to protect people from evil spirits.
- Chandi Dance- performed by Kirati Rai’s to Lord Shiva and Goddess Parbati.
- Peacock Dance- A Peacock is a holy bird. The male Peacock spreads its feather and dance when clouds gather and thunder starts.

Posted by PetersF 11:44 Archived in Nepal Tagged nepal kathmandu pashupatinath

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